The Human Rights Act 1998 is a piece of legislation in the United Kingdom that came into force in 2000. It incorporates the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) into UK law.
1. Public Authorities: The Human Rights Act 1998 applies to all public authorities and bodies performing public functions. This includes government departments, local authorities, healthcare providers, schools, and law enforcement agencies, among others.
2. Courts and Tribunals: The Act applies to all courts and tribunals in the UK, including the Supreme Court, Crown Court, and administrative tribunals. These bodies must interpret and apply the law in a manner consistent with the rights and freedoms protected under the ECHR.
3. Public Services and Functions: Public services and functions provided by public authorities are subject to the Act. This includes services such as healthcare, education, housing, and social services. Public authorities must ensure that their policies and practices respect individuals' human rights.
4. Private Bodies Carrying Out Public Functions: In certain cases, private organizations or entities carrying out functions of a public nature can also be subject to the Human Rights Act 1998. This applies when the state has a significant degree of control over their activities.
5. Individuals and Organizations Bringing Proceedings: The Act allows individuals or organizations to bring proceedings against public authorities if they believe their human rights have been violated. This provides a mechanism for redress and accountability.
6. Individuals in Public Custody: Individuals who are detained or in custody by public authorities, such as prisoners or those held in immigration detention centers, have their human rights protected under the Act. Public authorities must ensure that their treatment is consistent with the ECHR.
7. Acts of Public Authorities: The Human Rights Act 1998 applies to acts, decisions, and policies of public authorities. If an act or decision violates an individual's human rights as protected under the ECHR, it can be challenged in the courts.
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